Malaria has been a very big treat to human lives since the time of old, it has been one of those cases where humans and science has not been able to totally eradicate from the face of the world. But medications has come a long way to help our system fight against malaria.
Globally, malaria continues to be a severe threat to public health. It is to blame for high disease and mortality rates, particularly in young children and pregnant women.
Nigeria accounts for 25% of all malaria cases worldwide. Climate change, high transmission potential, socioeconomic development, a stressed-out healthcare system, and relocated populations are some of the causes.
It will take consistent local funding and a strong political commitment at the federal and state levels to eradicate the disease. This necessitates a clear understanding of the risk to children and expectant mothers. Focused research and bolstering health systems are required components of the elimination strategy. Furthermore, it must be population-specific.
It must include the fundamental interventions advised by the World Health Organization. One of these is vector control, which provides for preventative actions like using materials treated with insecticides, spraying indoors to kill mosquito larvae, and so on. The other is timely diagnosis and treatment using efficient medications.
Nigeria requires ongoing, multifaceted, interdisciplinary research. Basic sciences, clinical epidemiology, field epidemiology, social and behavioral studies, and epidemiology should all be incorporated into this. In the end, this will aid in researching population diversity and differences. Our federal government must allocate more money to this kind of study.
Data on malaria prevalence, clinical epidemiology, parasite rates, and diagnostics are crucial for assessing control efforts. Research on the population biology, genetics, and density of the malaria parasite and vector will help come up with new indigenous medicines, diagnostic tools that work well, and ways to stop the spread of the vector.
There must be equal access to malaria health management resources at all levels. This must include imparting traditional or herbal treatment methods’ knowledge to patent medicine vendors. We must create fresh malaria prevention strategies that are appropriate for our population.
People say that insecticide-treated nets are inconvenient. For example, we need to find new ways to use the safety measures we already have.
The goal of efforts should be to drastically reduce human-mosquito contact. Surveillance is a crucial part of eliminating malaria.
The goal of environmental management is to eradicate mosquito breeding grounds and larvae. This can be accomplished by trimming the bushes surrounding the house and other structures. Fixing potholes on our roads, cleaning the gutters, and getting rid of broken pots and bottles are all necessary.
Additionally, we need access to cost-effective and dependable diagnostic tools for finding malaria parasites. The quick diagnostic test is the most user-friendly. If a person is infected, it can identify specific malaria antigens in their blood.
Healthcare facilities should be able to access the most sensitive diagnostics. They are essential for primary healthcare and advised for use at home. Periodically, the kits should be validated using expert microscopy.
The most palatable medications for treatment are those with an artemisinin base. They ought to be made available and reasonably priced. Children, women who are pregnant, and visitors to Nigeria from countries without malaria who are not immune should all get extra care.
The government must also be willing to work to completely eradicate malaria in Nigeria. The Malaria Elimination Programmed should be strengthened to develop effective domestic methods to meet its objectives. The staff should be responsible and committed, and a system should be put in place to track and evaluate performance.
The origin of malaria?
A person get infected with malaria when a mosquito bites him or her. The parasite the mosquito carries enters the bloodstream of the person it bites. The parasites grow there. Humans can contract one of five different types of malaria parasites.
Malaria can sometimes be passed on from pregnant women to their unborn children. Although improbable, malaria can spread through hypodermic needles, organ transplants, and blood transfusions.
Where do malaria most common to occur around the world
There is not specific place where Malaria occurs. But it’s most common in poor countries and places with warm weather and a lot of humidity, like:
- in South and Central America.
- Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and other Caribbean nations.
- Europe’s east
- Asia’s south and southeast
Oceania is made up of the islands of the South and Central Pacific Oceans (Oceania).
Who could contract malaria?
Malaria can affect anyone, although African residents are more likely to contract it than others. Malaria increases the risk of death in pregnant women, young children, and older adults. People who are poor and can’t get medical care are more likely to have problems because of their condition.
More than 90% of malaria-related fatalities occur in Africa, and small children make up almost all of the victims. In the 2020 malaria epidemic, children under five accounted for more than 80% of the fatalities.
Malaria prevention methods
Malaria is primarily transmitted at night since most Anopheles mosquitoes eat at night. Wearing clothing covering most of the body, using insect repellent on exposed skin, and using mosquito bed nets (ideally insecticide-treated nets) are all ways to prevent mosquito bites. Age and status affect the kind and strength of repellents.
Mosquito bites control
The effectiveness of vector control strategies depends on the vector species, the biology of the mosquito, the epidemiological situation, the cost, and the acceptability of the people. The main current initiatives include:
- reducing human-mosquito interaction.
- eradicating mosquito larvae through environmental management and using larvicides or mosquito larvae predators.
- Eliminating adult mosquitoes by indoor residual spraying and using bed nets coated with insecticides
A single bite can contract malaria. It’s critical to have adequate mosquito protection. Insect bites can be avoided by taking simple precautions, including wearing covered clothing, using a mosquito net, and applying insect repellent. Although it is impossible to avoid being bitten altogether, the frequency of bites can be minimized.
Everyone who travels and lives in a region at high risk for malaria is urged to stay inside, especially after sunset, and to keep doors and windows covered or closed to keep mosquitoes out. An insecticide-treated mosquito net is exceptionally effective in preventing bites while you sleep.
An insect repellent should be applied to the skin and in the vicinity of the sleeping area. Those that are administered directly to the skin must be reapplied often. The most efficient insect repellents come in spray, roll-on, stick, and cream forms and include diethyltoluamide (DEET).
Bites can be avoided by wearing coveralls. Mosquitoes like to feed in the early evening and at night, so it’s best to wear light-colored, loose-fitting pants and long-sleeved shirts instead of shorts.
Malaria prevention medication
To avoid contracting infections when travelling, taking the course of your recommended medication is crucial. Chemoprophylaxis is a term that is helpful for tourists.
Since antimalarials are not always successful, it is equally crucial to avoid being bitten. Chloroquine, doxycycline, mefloquine, primaquine, atovaquone plus proguanil (Mularoni), and other medications are frequently prescribed. Four weeks after returning from travel, chloroquine must be taken. After returning, Mularoni may be taken for a week.
One can also choose to be taking medications at least once everymonth to enable the immune system gain more power to fight against malaria.